Guidelines for Induction and Mentoring and Mentor Teachers, HTML version
- Leading learning in induction and mentoring: educative mentoring
- Characteristics of limited and high quality induction and mentoring
The New Zealand Teachers Council (the Council) has developed the Guidelines for Induction and Mentoring and Mentor Teachers (the Guidelines) to support the provision of nationally consistent, high quality, and comprehensive support for Provisionally Registered Teachers (PRTs) in their first few years of practice and to enable them to become fully registered teachers.
- include key principles for high quality induction and mentoring in New Zealand
- outline the essential components of a programme of support for PRTs.
- clarify expectations for the role of mentor teachers
- describe the required key skills, knowledge and attributes and the professional learning and development needed by mentor teachers to fulfil this role adequately.
The research programme Learning to Teach (2007-2008) preceded the development of the Guidelines and highlighted the potential of intensive, pedagogically focused mentoring to accelerate the learning and expertise of newly qualified teachers.
As a result, the term ‘induction and mentoring’ now replaces ‘advice and guidance’. This signals the shift from ‘advice’ to a co-constructive relationship and programme of professional learning. While the main focus is the support of PRTs, these Guidelines can also be used for the collegial support of all teachers including those new to teaching in New Zealand.
The Guidelines were developed through the Council’s research programme Learning to Teach (2007-2008), informed by international expertise and discussion with professional groups, and a two year national pilot programme.
Learning to Teach (2007-2008) was undertaken to investigate the quality and consistency of support available to PRTs in New Zealand. The research showed the distinction between limited mentoring, geared around advice and emotional support, and intensive, pedagogically-oriented mentoring often referred to as ‘educative mentoring’. The research provided the platform for the Guidelines to be developed and tested in the Council’s Induction and Mentoring Pilot Programme, comprising four sector specific pilots:
- Early Childhood Education – New Zealand Kindergartens’ Regional Networks
- Primary / Intermediate – Auckland University's Educative Mentoring and Induction Programme
- Secondary – Massey University’s Professional Learning Community
- Māori Medium – Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi’s Connected Approach
The Guidelines are designed to shift school, kura and ECE policy and practices towards an ‘educative mentoring’ approach – a shift away from a view of induction as ‘advice and guidance’ to one of skilled facilitation of ‘learning conversations’ focusing on evidence of teachers’ practice. Rather than just providing ‘advice’ and emotional support, the mentor teachers co-construct professional learning, where often the learning is reciprocal.
The Guidelines acknowledge that the work of a teacher is highly complex and demanding. Research and experience clearly shows that newly graduated teachers need high quality and well structured induction in order to:
- become accomplished and effective teachers who can improve the learning outcomes of diverse ākonga
- progressively demonstrate that they meet the Registered Teacher Criteria
- be able to contribute fresh ideas and approaches that rejuvenate teaching workplaces
- build a strong foundation of self-reflection and on-going professional learning
- enjoy teaching and stay a positive member of the profession.
While these Guidelines focus on (and have been tested with) PRTs, they are also a useful framework for supporting all teachers who are not yet fully registered 1 . This includes teachers who are returning to the profession after a break from teaching, and overseas teachers who are new to the New Zealand context. The Guidelines will be useful in any context where teachers require support and mentoring in their on-going development.
These guidelines apply to the teaching profession in both the early childhood and schooling sectors and are intended to be used by everyone with a role to play in mentoring PRTs and other teachers needing support. All professional leaders are responsible for ensuring that they have in place an induction and mentoring policy for their school, kura or ECE service based on the Guidelines.
The Guidelines will support professional leaders to:
- lead a learning culture that is supported by policies and systems within their setting to best support PRTs and mentor teachers
- create and implement a high quality programme of induction and mentoring within their setting
- be clear about their own role in the processes and systems for supporting PRTs
- ensure there are robust processes for making assessment decisions for full registration.
The Guidelines will support mentor teachers to:
- create and implement, along with the professional leader, a high quality programme of induction and mentoring within their setting
- be clear about what their role entails
- know what professional learning and development is needed for their role
- develop educative approaches to their day-to-day mentoring practice.
Provisionally Registered Teachers (PRTs)
The Guidelines will support PRTs to:
- know what programme of support they are entitled to in their first few years of teaching to help them become fully registered teachers
- recognise what on-going professional self reflection, learning and development is expected of them
- have input into the programme’s design and implementation (in collaboration with the professional leader and mentor teacher).
The wider education sector
The Guidelines have implications for the wider education sector 2 to identify the support and resources that they can provide to encourage high quality induction and mentoring.
When working with the Guidelines, professional leaders and teachers need to spend some time thinking about what would work best in their specific setting, in their sector and for individual teachers. Unpacking, co-constructing and interpreting what the Guidelines mean is an intrinsic part of their value. The Guidelines should be discussed in relation to key documents such as the Registered Teacher Criteria, school, kura or ECE service strategic plans and performance management systems.
All schools, kura and ECE settings need to have in place an induction and mentoring policy. It is recommended that this policy is based on the Guidelines for Induction and Mentoring.
In addition, the Guidelines may be used:
- as a way to explore with staff what effective induction and mentoring looks like in the school, kura or ECE setting
- as a central reference point against which current induction and mentoring practices are reviewed on an ongoing basis
- in combination with other information (for example the Learning to Teach research) when developing your I&M programme
- to clarify roles and expectations in supporting teachers
- to identify skills, knowledge and appropriate professional development activities to develop mentor teachers effectively.
Induction and mentoring programmes will look different depending on the individual characteristics of the school, kura or ECE setting, and the needs of the PRT. Some useful findings from the pilot programmes that may assist with developing the structure of the programme include the following:
- time needs to be scheduled in and made a priority for meaningful discussion about teaching practice to take place.
- networks for PRTs and mentors were seen as important vehicles for sharing ideas, resources and support as well as an opportunity to identify issues.
- induction and mentoring programmes are more likely to succeed where the school, kura or ECE service’s leadership is actively informed and involved.
- the concept of reciprocity and collective contribution for a common good of the group is a key concept in mentoring in Māori medium settings. The mentoring of the PRT is a collective responsibility.
When unpacking the Guidelines it may be helpful to consider the following:
- How do the Guidelines add to or expand your current knowledge of what high quality induction and mentoring looks like?
- What do you believe constitutes high quality induction and mentoring in your setting?
- Are there aspects of the Guidelines that need to be emphasised or interpreted to better reflect the unique needs of your teachers?
- Does your current induction and mentoring programme reflect the vision set out in the Guidelines?
- What can a PRT expect in their induction and mentoring programme in your setting?
- What support should mentor teachers receive to carry out their role effectively?
- What implications do the Guidelines have on your practice?
- How might the Guidelines be used to promote a learning culture amongst all teachers in your setting?
- What documented policy and handbook(s) do you need to provide to put these Guidelines into effect for your setting?
Link to the Registered Teacher Criteria
PRTs are required to demonstrate that they meet all of the Registered Teacher Criteria in order to become fully registered teachers. The Registered Teacher Criteria provide the “hurdle, compass and beacon” for PRTs to gain full registration and to continue to renew a fully registered practising certificate as experienced teachers. Therefore it is essential that the Guidelines are used in partnership with the Registered Teacher Criteria. The Registered Teacher Criteria set the benchmarks and provide the framework to guide professional learning for all teachers seeking to gain and maintain Full registration.
Induction is the broad term for all support and guidance (including mentoring) provided to newly graduated teachers as they begin their teaching practice in real situations. It is about building the teaching profession and ensuring that all teachers are part of a learning community focused on continually improving the learning outcomes of all their ākonga.
High quality induction programmes are comprehensive, educative and evaluative.
A comprehensive induction programme has many elements and is conducted over a sustained period of time. For PRTs this period is at least two years. No single intervention on its own is enough to create high quality induction. A comprehensive induction programme includes:
- welcoming and introducing a new teacher to the context in which they will work
- on-going professional development and support from a range of sources
- access to external professional networks
- high quality educative mentoring
- standards-based, evidence informed evaluations of professional practice against the Registered Teacher Criteria.
A comprehensive induction programme should not be the responsibility of one or two people acting in isolation. Instead it requires employers, leaders, the school, kura or ECE professional learning community, and the wider profession to be engaged.
Provisional registration is a key opportunity and time for intensive, sustained professional learning. An induction programme should not be focused on progressing through a standard checklist of requirements. Instead induction should be focused on enabling PRTs to be exposed to, learn and practise the particular skills, attitudes and attributes they need to become accomplished, fully registered teachers who can improve the learning outcomes of diverse ākonga.
An induction and mentoring programme provides opportunity for formative and progressive feedback to the PRT on their professional learning as well as leading to a final assessment as to whether the PRT is ready to gain full registration. This means that:
- Records must be kept of what activities occur as part of the induction programme, what feedback and support has been provided to the PRT and what the PRT’s own reflection and learning has been.
- Records must also be kept of evidence of the PRT’s progress towards meeting the Registered Teacher Criteria. When an application for full registration is received, the Council will be seeking evidence of both the above elements i.e. that the PRT has undertaken an appropriate induction programme and that the PRT has been assessed as having met all of the Registered Teacher Criteria.
Mentoring is an essential component of induction. High quality mentoring is educative in focus as well as based on a relationship of trust and collegiality. It is important that mentor teachers are well resourced, with dedicated time to fulfil the role and that they receive career recognition for the role. A high quality mentoring programme therefore is relationship-based, focused on educative mentoring, and resourced and recognised.
A mentor should be chosen who is able to work comfortably and supportively in a co-constructive relationship with the PRT. Mentor teachers require professional development and support to develop their relational skills.
Focused on educative mentoring
High quality mentoring happens when an experienced colleague provides dedicated time to a PRT to guide, support, give feedback and facilitate evidence-informed, reflective learning conversations. An ‘educative mentor’ in this sense is not merely a ‘buddy’ providing emotional support and handy ‘just in time’ tips to the PRT. Educative mentoring is a highly skilled and highly valued role in the profession and mentors need appropriate professional development to learn and practise these skills.
Recognised and resourced
Mentor teachers need to be supported by the school, kura or ECE service leadership to have dedicated time and professional development to fulfil their roles adequately. Ideally, mentor teachers should receive career recognition for this very important role of professional leadership and support they provide for their teaching colleagues.
Resources to support the use of the Guidelines and implementation of induction and mentoring programmes will be available on the Council's website during 2011 http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/
Section one: Guidelines for establishing and implementing a programme of induction (including mentoring)
1. Vision statement
The following is the Council’s vision statement for the induction support provided by everyone who has a role in supporting Provisionally Registered Teachers (PRTs). This vision sets out the overall purpose for any induction programme and the desired outcomes that the programme should aim for.
|THE VISION STATEMENT FOR INDUCTION PROGRAMMES FOR PROVISIONALLY REGISTERED TEACHERS IN AOTEAROA NEW ZEALAND
High quality induction programmes will be provided for all PRTs who aspire to achieve full registration as a teacher in Aotearoa New Zealand.
The programmes will be educative in focus and will support recently qualified teaching graduates to become:
Professional development and on-going system-wide support to mentor teachers will underpin the intensive professional support needed by PRTs to maximise their professional learning and progress towards achievement of the above two goals.
In this way, the profession will progressively improve its ability to contribute to equitable learning outcomes for all ākonga.
2. Principles for high quality induction programmes
High quality induction programmes:
- are based in a community of support including the active support by the institution’s professional leader
- are personalised and based on the aspirations and needs of the individual PRT
- are responsive to the characteristics of ākonga and the wider community
- develop a PRT’s increasing responsibility for their own professional learning
- are educative in focus
- work towards the vision statement, with a particular focus on improving equitable outcomes for all ākonga
- are regularly reviewed to ensure continued effectiveness.
3. Essential components of high quality induction programmes
There is commitment to the vision statement:
- The employer, leadership and school, kura or ECE professional learning community need to develop a common understanding of how the vision statement will be interpreted and applied within their context and be committed to it.
There is institutional commitment and leadership for the programme:
- LI>Leaders and the school, kura or ECE learning community need to be committed to a culture of collaborative professional inquiry.
- There needs to be structural support from the employer and senior colleagues, including ensuring dedicated time is provided for the mentoring and other professional development.
- The learning community in some settings, may embrace families and others in the wider community in addition to professional colleagues.
- Leaders should provide work conditions for the PRT that recognise their novice status.
Quality mentoring is a central (but not the sole) component:
- Mentors need to be carefully selected, provided with access to high quality professional development and support for their role, and assured of dedicated time to carry out the role (see Section Two).
- The PRT will also be supported to access learning from the wider learning community including observations of colleagues and participation in structured professional development programmes within and external to the institution.
The programme is based on the Registered Teacher Criteria to guide the learning and formative feedback to the teacher:
- There needs to be a shared understanding of the characteristics of effective teaching as set out in the Registered Teacher Criteria.
The programme is focused on the daily practice of PRTs with their ākonga:
- The programme will provide intensive, specific support based on evidence from the teaching and the learning of all the ākonga – so that the PRT is able to systematically reflect on this evidence and learn from it.
- The programme will focus on the needs and aspirations of individual PRTs, establishing reciprocal relationships that encourage the PRT to take increasing responsibility for identifying next steps for their professional learning.
The programme will provide the support and processes needed so the PRT can move towards gaining full registration:
- This means meeting the Council’s requirements for formal documentation of the induction programme and documentation of evidence of the teacher’s progress towards achievement of full registration (including the Registered Teacher Criteria.)
Mentoring is one important component of any high quality induction programme. These guidelines should be used to help define the role, responsibilities, and on-going development of those teachers who are mentoring PRTs as part of a comprehensive induction programme.
1. Vision statement
The following vision statement should govern the selection, development and day-to-day practice of mentor teachers:
|VISION STATEMENT FOR MENTORING OF PROVISIONALLY REGISTERED TEACHERS IN AOTEAROA NEW ZEALAND
An effective mentor is a reflective practitioner focused on inquiry into their own and others' professional practice and learning - based on a clear understanding of outstanding teaching.
An effective mentor has a significant educative leadership role, dedicated to growing the professional capability of the colleagues they support.
An effective mentor has a sound knowledge and skill base for their role and can establish respectful and effective mentoring relationships.
An effective mentor does not work in isolation. Mentors can only be effective if they are providing mentoring as part of a comprehensive induction programme and are well supported by their employer, professional leader, and professional learning community.
2. The role of a mentor teacher
The role of a mentor of a PRT includes:
- providing support to the PRT in their new role as a teacher with full responsibility for their ākonga
- demonstrating effective teaching
- facilitating learning conversations with the PRT that challenge and support them to use evidence to develop teaching strengths
- assisting the PRT to plan effective learning programmes
- observing the PRT and providing feedback against specific criteria and facilitating the PRTs ability to reflect on that feedback
- assisting the PRT to gather and analyse ākonga learning data in order to inform next steps / different approaches in their teaching
- guiding the PRT towards professional leadership practices that support learning in the unique socio-cultural contexts of Aotearoa New Zealand
- supporting the PRT to become part of the wider learning community
- providing formal assessment of the PRT’s progress in relation to the Registered Teacher Criteria
- suggesting suitable professional development for the PRT
- advocating for the PRT if needed, particularly in relation to accessing high quality induction and mentoring
- listening to and helping the PRT to solve problems.
3. Key areas of knowledge, skills and dispositions needed for high quality mentoring
Mentors know about teachers, teaching and teacher learning
- contextual knowledge of an individual PRT including his/her cultural background
- pedagogy of teacher education and of mentoring
- knowledge of the teaching profession, the education system and professional standards (including Registered Teacher Criteria)
- leadership and management of change.
Mentors know about ākonga and learning
- contextual knowledge of the ākonga the PRT is teaching, including cultural background of individuals and of the communities the ākonga are from
- pedagogical content knowledge relating to curriculum area/s within which the PRT is teaching
- research into learning e.g. Best Evidence Synthesis reports from Ministry of Education
- collection and interpretation of evidence of learning.
Mentors are able to use mentoring skills and dispositions
- facilitate constructive but challenging professional conversations with PRTs and maintain their enthusiasm
- demonstrate for the PRT effective teaching for diverse ākonga
- use effective observation skills and strategies
- analyse and reflect on evidence of learning
- negotiate and advocate on behalf of the teacher
- demonstrate professional leadership and understanding of the potentiality of effective teaching to influence equitable outcomes for ākonga
- provide and/or seek cultural advice to support development of te reo me ona tikanga.
4. Provision of mentor teacher professional development
Ongoing support systems and professional development opportunities for mentor teachers should be established. As set out in these Guidelines, the mentor teacher role involves specific skills that cannot be assumed but need to be explicitly taught and supported. They are skills that are also needed by other professional leadership roles. This means that increasing capability in these areas will have an impact on the quality of the wider professional leadership in a school, kura or ECE setting.
The Council is working with the wider profession to ensure there will, over time, be a structured system of both formal learning and on-going professional development available to support the mentor teacher role. It is recommended that mentor teachers form professional communities of practice to support each other within and / or between schools, kura and ECE settings.
Programmes for the development of mentor teachers may include (but not be confined to) the following content:
- pedagogy of mentoring
- facilitation of challenging, evidence-informed, professional learning conversations
- knowledge of the Registered Teacher Criteria and how to use the Registered Teacher Criteria to guide the personal learning of a PRT]
- approaches to gathering evidence of PRT’s learning and of providing and documenting formative feedback
- collection and analysis of learning data for PRTs to engage with in their professional learning
- knowledge of specific strategies such as for supporting differentiated learning needs, English for Second Language learning, English for Additional Language learning, and support to literacy and numeracy learning
- leadership development
- active listening
- how to personalise learning.
Advice and guidance
The term used by the Council and the profession until recently to describe the programmes of support to provisionally registered teachers. Now replaced by induction and mentoring programmes.
A learner who may be in a range of settings, from early childhood to secondary and beyond.
Induction and mentoring
See Guidelines. This is the programme of professional support provided to PRTs, teachers registered STC and others new to the profession in New Zealand.
A mentor teacher may be variously described as a tutor teacher, supervising teacher, support teacher or co-ordinator of the induction programme for PRTs. A mentor teacher is fully registered and needs to have specific, specialised skills to support PRTs to become fully registered.
In the schooling sector, the professional leader is the principal of the school. In early childhood services, the professional leader may be one of a variety of roles such as head teacher, team leader or manager professional practice. This person has the responsibility for the teaching and learning in the centre or service and for ensuring that high quality induction and mentoring programmes are in place.
Provisionally Registered Teacher (PRT)
Teachers apply for provisional registration when they have qualified to teach by successfully completing an approved Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme in New Zealand or been granted recognition of an overseas teaching qualification. They then undertake a structured programme of induction and mentoring which enables them to demonstrate they are competent in the Registered Teacher Criteria and can apply for full registration.
Registered Teacher Criteria (2009)
These are the standards for fully registered teachers in New Zealand to demonstrate ‘satisfactory recent teaching experience’. Provisionally registered or Subject to Confirmation teachers need to demonstrate they meet the Registered Teacher Criteria in order to gain Full registration and then to maintain this every three years. The Registered Teacher Criteria have replaced the Satisfactory Teacher Dimensions.
Subject to Confirmation (STC) registration
Teachers may be issued a practising certificate Subject to Confirmation if they have not recently been able to demonstrate they meet all the Registered Teacher Criteria in the New Zealand general education system or in an approved setting.
Teachers who have been recently assessed as meeting the Registered Teacher Criteria and who meet all other requirements may be issued a practising certificate Fully registered.
The following tables can be used to discuss what activities could be included in a high quality induction and mentoring programme. They will assist professional leaders, mentor teachers and PRTs with unpacking the Guidelines. The tables were developed by teachers in the primary / intermediate school pilot led by Auckland University. 3
Leading Learning in Induction and Mentoring: Educative Mentoring
The following table summarises characteristics of educative mentoring, and what it looks like in practice.
|Examples of practice|
Characteristics of limited and high quality induction and mentoring
The following table 4 provides examples of what ‘limited’ induction and mentoring looks like in practice, compared to high quality educative induction and mentoring. Aspects of ‘limited’ induction and mentoring, however, may still be important, particularly the emotional or pastoral support to new teachers.
Limited induction and mentoring
|High quality, intensive induction and mentoring|
|Links practice to a view of good teaching
Builds confidence by developing pedagogical expertise
Has a developmental (but not linear) view of learning to teach
Develops teacher autonomy and agency
Builds knowledge by using their teaching as a site of inquiry
Provides planned, and takes advantage of incidental, learning opportunities
Engages in serious professional conversations
Bases feedback and assessment on evidence
School, kura or ECE service structure
A Select Bibliography
Achinstein, B., & Athanases, S.Z. (Eds.). (2006). Mentors in the Making: Developing New Leaders for New Teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.
Aitken, H., Ferguson, P. B., McGrath, F., Piggot-Irvine, E. & Ritchie, J. (2008). Learning to teach: Success case studies of teacher induction in Aotearoa New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Teachers Council.
Britton, T., Paine, L., Pimm, Dl, & Raizen, S. (2003). Comprehensive teacher induction: Systems for early career learning. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Cameron, M. (2007). Learning to teach: A literature review of induction theory and practice. Wellington: New Zealand Teachers Council.
Cameron, M., Baker, R., & Lovett, S. (2006). Teachers of promise: Getting started in teaching. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research..
Cameron, M., Dingle, R., & Brooking, K. (2007). Learning to teach: A survey of provisionally registered teachers in New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Teachers Council.
Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1013–1055.
Moir, E., Barlin, D., Gless, J. & Miles, J. (2009). New teacher mentoring: Hopes and promise for improving teacher effectiveness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
New Zealand Teachers Council. (2010). Registered Teacher Criteria Handbook 2010. Wellington: New Zealand Teachers Council.
Timperley, H.,Wilson, ,A., Barra, H., & Fung, I. (2008). Teacher Professional Learning and Development: A Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration: Ministry of Education.
Yusko, B., & Feiman-Nemser, S. (2008). Embracing Contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teachers College Record, 110(5), 923-953.
To be published: 1
Butler, P., & Douglas, C. (2011). Induction and mentoring pilot programme for secondary schools: Research report.
Jenkins, K., & Murphy, H. (2011). Te hāpai ō: A handbook for induction and mentoring in Māori medium settings.
Langdon, F., with Flint, A., Kromer, G., Ryde, A. & Karl, D. (2011). Leading learning in induction and mentoring: New Zealand Teachers Council Auckland induction and mentoring pilot programme.
Sankar, M., Brown, N., Teague, M. & Harding, B. (2011). Evaluation of the New Zealand Teachers Council induction and mentoring pilot project: Final report.
Podmore, V., & Wells, C. (2011). New Zealand Kindergartens induction and mentoring pilot final research report.
1 Including teachers who are registered Subject to Confirmation and who are seeking to become fully registered.
2 Including the Council, the Ministry of Education, teaching institutions, employing authorities, teacher unions and a variety of other external support services.
3 Langdon, F., with Flint, A., Kromer, G., Ryde, A. & Karl, D. (2011). Leading learning in induction and mentoring: New Zealand Teachers Council Auckland induction and mentoring pilot programme.
4 Langdon et al. (2011).
5 These final reports will be published under slightly different titles.